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Batuan Mafik dan Felsik

Salah satu metode untuk memisahkan batuan adalah berdasarkan komponen mineral mafik dan felsik. Batuan mafik terdiri dari mineral ferromagnesian sedangkan batuan felsik dasarnya terdiri dari mineral feldspar dan silika.

Kehadiran mineral mafik di batuan cenderung memberikan warna gelap sementara kehadiran mineral felsik memberikan warna terang. Dengan demikian, batuan juga bisa dipisahkan ke dalam berbagai kategori warna berdasarkan persentase mineral berwarna. Shand menggunakan terminologi berikut:


Perlu di perhatikan bahwa klasifikasi di atas diterapkan secara eksklusif untuk batuan beku. Secara umum mineral "gelap" sesuai dengan mineral ferromagnesian dan termasuk olivin, piroroksin, ampibol, biotit mika, turmalin, kromit dan oksida besi. Mineral "terang" termasuk feldspar, silika, feldspathoid, dan muskovit.



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